Category Archives: Illuminati Elites

Obama’s Council on Foreign Relations Crew

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“We think the price is worth it.” Madeline Albright – CFR, Brookings – Currently serves on the Council on Foreign Relations Board of directors.

Global Research | Nov 9, 2008

by Steve Watson

Meet some of president elect Obama’s leading foreign and domestic policy advisors and likely administration members, every one of them a prominent member of the Council On Foreign Relations.

Will these people bring about “change” or will they continue to hold up the same entrenched system forged by the corporate elite for decades?

Susan E. RiceCouncil on Foreign Relations, The Brookings Institution – Served as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs under Clinton from 1997 to 2001. Former Secretary of State Madeline Albright is a longtime mentor and family friend to Rice. Critics charge that she is is ill disposed towards Europe, has little understanding of the Middle East and would essentially follow the same policies of Condoleeza Rice if appointed the next Secretary of State or the National Security Adviser.

Anthony Lake – CFR, PNAC – Bill Clinton’s first national security adviser, who was criticized for the administration’s failure to confront the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 and now acknowledges the inaction as a major mistake.

Zbigniew Brzezinski – CFR, Trilateral Commission – Brzezinski is widely seen as the man who created Al Qaeda, and was involved in the Carter Administration plan to give arms, funding and training to the mujahideen in Afghanistan.

Richard Clarke – CFR – Former chief counter-terrorism adviser on the U.S. National Security Council under Bush. Notoriously turned against the Bush administration after 9/11 and the invasion of Iraq. Also advised Madeleine Albright during the Genocide in Rwanda.

Ivo Daalder – CFR, Brookings, PNAC – Co-authored a Washington Post op-ed with neocon Robert Kagan arguing that interventionism is a bipartisan affair that should be undertaken with the approval of our democratic allies.

Dennis Ross – CFR, Trilateral Commission, PNAC – Served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H. W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. A noted supporter of the Iraq war, Ross is also a Foreign Affairs Analyst for the Fox News Channel.

Lawrence Korb – CFR, Brookings – Director of National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations. Has criticized manor of the invasion of Iraq but has detailed plans to increase the manpower of the United States Army to fight the war on terror and to “spread liberal democratic values throughout the Middle East”.

Bruce Reidel – CFR, Brookings – Former CIA analyst who wishes to expand the war on terror to fight Al Qaeda across the globe. Considered to be the reason behind Barack Obama’s Hawkish views on Pakistan and his Pro India leanings on Kashmir.

Stephen Flynn – CFR – Has been attributed with the idea for Obama’s much vaunted “Civilian Security Force”. Flynn has written: “The United States should roughly replicate the Federal Reserve model by creating a Federal Security Reserve System (FSRS) with a national board of governors, 10 regional Homeland Security Districts, and 92 local branches called Metropolitan Anti-Terrorism Committees. The objective of this system would be to develop self-funding mechanisms to more fully engage a broad cross-section of American society to protect the country’s critical foundations from the widespread disruption that would arise from a terrorist attack.”

Madeline Albright – CFR, Brookings – Currently serves on the Council on Foreign Relations Board of directors. Secretary of State and US Ambassador to the United Nations under Clinton. Did not take action against the genocide in Rwanda. Defended the sanctions against Iraq under Saddam Hussein. When asked by CBS’s 60 Minutes about the effects of sanctions: “We have heard that half a million children have died. I mean, that’s more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?” Albright replied: “I think this is a very hard choice, but the price — we think the price is worth it.”

This is by no means an exhaustive list. Of course, had John McCain become president, being a member of the CFR himself, his administration would have been replete with CFR representatives also. Max Boot, Lawrence Eagleburger and Henry Kissinger, to name but a few, are all CFR members and were all advisors to the McCain campaign.

Please do your own research and add more names in the comments section of this report. It is important to document how these people are a part of the engine of global elitism and do not represent change. Only with this understanding will others wake up to the false left-right paradigm and be able to create the environment for real political change.

Prodigy Says Jay-Z Sides With The ‘Evil Illuminati’

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Prodigy (photo: KNOWxONE)

Baller Status | Nov 6, 2008

by Miles Bennett

Like he does in his monthly blog on Vibe.com, the incarcerated Prodigy recently spewed more of his conspiracy theories via a handwritten letter to URB. This time, he reveals the moment his eyes were opened to the sham he calls “the government, religions, politics, the Federal Reserve, and I.R.S.”

According to P, in 1996, after reading a book by Dr. Malichi Z. York titled Leviathan 666, he was moved so much, he cried, and that was his “moment of clarity.”

“I was crying for all of humanity, but mostly for my black people ’cause I then realized it was all a sham,” Prodigy writes in his letter to URB. “The government, religions, politics, the Federal Reserve, the I.R.S., and everything that we believe and live by is a joke.”

Even worse, the rapper says that many popular rappers are aware of these society secrets, but choose not to speak on it for fear of not being accepted by corporate America. One, in particular, is Jay-Z.

Occult Secrets of Jay Z, Kanye & Nas

“J.Z. knows the truth, but he chose sides with evil in order to be accepted in the corporate world. J.Z. conceals the truth from the black community and the world, and promotes the lifestyle of the beast instead,” he wrote.

Prodigy says that Jay grew up grew up in Dr. York’s “Nuwabian” community in Brooklyn as a kid, and is “aware” of these evils — rogue government, elitists running the country, etc. (For more on Dr. York, read up here)

Because of Jay’z refusal to speak on the topics Prodigy has been doing so since his incarceration, he will make it a point to wage war against him.

“J.Z is a God damn lie. I have so much fire in my heart that I will relentlessly attack J.Z, Illuminati, and any-every other evil that exists until my lights are put out,” P writes.

“This negativity I speak of is an actual living entity that uses us as food. We must sever ties with it in order to see things for what they really are. This negative energy is created and harnessed by the Illuminati secret government and they will make you spread this energy without you even knowing it. But people like J.Z. are very well aware. He was schooled by Dr. York,” he continued.

To read Prodigy’s full letter, visit Urb.com.

P also revealed that another autobiographical project titled My Infamous Life will be out in 2010.

_________

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Lupe Fiasco – The Illuminati & The Music Industry

Jay-Z Addresses Illuminati Accusers, Says They Can’t Handle His Success

Hip Hop’s Masonic Order

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Nuwaubianism

Nuwaubianism is an umbrella term used to refer to the doctrines, and teachings of the followers of Malachi Z. York. The Nuwaubians themselves reject this term Nuwaubianism as it is found nowhere in the literary works of their teacher Malachi Z. York. They refer to their teachings by such terms as “Nuwaubu”, “Nuwaupu”, “Wu-Nuwaubu”, “Right Knowledge”, “Sound Right Reasoning”, “Overstanding” and “Factology”, and many other names through the years.

The Nuwaubians originated as a Black Muslim group in New York in the 1970s, and have gone through many changes since. Eventually, the group established a headquarters in Putnam County, Georgia in 1993. The Southern Poverty Law Center has categorized the Nuwaubians as a black supremacist hate group.

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Al-Muftil Azeem the Grand Al-Mufti “Divan” The Imperial Grand Potentate As-Sayyid Issa Al-Haadi Al-Mahdi Noble Rev. Dr Malachi Z. York El 720 degree

Nuwaubianism is said to have borrowed from a wide range of sources which include Theosophy-derived New Age movements such as Astara as well as the Rosicrucians, Freemasonry, the Shriners, the Moorish Science Temple of America, the revisionist Christianity and Islam of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the numerology of Rashad Khalifa, the ancient astronaut theories of Zecharia Sitchin, Robert Temple’s The Sirius Mystery, J.J. Hurtak’s The Keys of Enoch, the works of Richard Shaver (a proponent of the Hollow Earth theory), David Icke, the UFO mythology of greys and reptilians, the political and legal theories of patriot mythology, modern scientific and pseudoscientific legends like those of Area 51, the Philadelphia Experiment, Project Blue Book, Montauk Project, and MJ-12, popular conspiracy theories such as those about the Illuminati or the Bilderberg Group, and even a paperback on fortune-telling.

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Grand Master Malachi Z. York, Nuwaubian Grand North Lodge

Journalist Adam Heimlich reviewed a number of York’s booklets in 2000 and wrote:

A partial list, from my notes, of places I’d encountered Nuwaubian notions before includes Chariots of the Gods and the Rael’s [sic] embellishments on that book, conspiracy lit, UFO lit, the human potential movement, Buddhism and new-age, astrology, theosophy and Blavatsky, Leonard Jeffries and other Afrocentrics, Cayce, LaRouche, alternative medicine, self-help lit, Satanism, the Atkins diet, numerology and yoga. Many of these York mentions by name. There are also extensive discourses on the Torah, Gospels and Koran, as well as on Rastafarianism, the Nation of Islam and the Five Percent Nation.

Some of York’s followers consider him to be a living god. At times he has encouraged this interpretation, and at other times, York has suggested that he is merely channeling the divine through various personalities. He has also identified himself as Al-Khidr (“the green one”) and as Melchizedek (who York says is also the archangel Michael). In later years York dismissed bodily worship of himself in a preface that was published within all of his books:

I am not the Lord Adonai, Jesus Messiah “The Christ”; nor am I a holy man, nor a preacher. I am a Master Teacher, a guide.

Nuwaubians also may view themselves as gods, using such sources as the Bible and Torah to validate their claims. Nuwaubians do not see the use of the word “god” as just referring to a universal creator, but also a title that one receives upon reaching a state of perfection or absolute power.

York was arrested in 2002, and was later sentenced to 135 years in prison for sexually molesting boys and girls whose parents were members of the Nuwaubians and for RICO violations. His followers continue to disseminate his teachings as he continues to develop them from behind bars.


“The hands of the Führer organize his speech. This picture captures Hitler’s hands as he speaks of the unity of the National Socialist and socialist ideas…”

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Beyonce, Jay-Z and more set for celeb-soaked Barack Obama inauguration

jay-Z Masonic sign skull

obama_o_signObama supporters make the “O” sign.

First-Ever Masonic Inaugural Ball to be Held for Obama

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President Barack Obama (R), first lady Michelle Obama (2nd L), German Chancellor Angela Merkel (3rd L) and her husband Joachim Sauer (L) pose for photographs on the North Portico before a state dinner at the White House June 7, 2011 in Washington, DC. Getty Images

Tiffany Evans Claims Rihanna & Others Satanists; Slams “Russian Roulette;” Rihanna’s Devilish History

“The Eye of Horus gestures are believed to be used to channel spirits through one’s ‘illuminated’ body. So people are not going to go on and on about the pyramid being Jay-Z’s Roc symbol…and see this picture of Gloria Steinem, editor of Ms. Magazine and supposed feminist. She has nothing to do with Jay-Z other than she also holds up the alleged Illuminati pyramid sign at various photo opportunities.”

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The Oracle of Omaha flashes the diamond sign at the re-opening of Jay-Z’s New York City club 40/40.


Star Trek salute in “The Way to Eden”

Still from YouTube sparked rumors of Charice’s association with the Illuminati. Credit: YouTube

Charice says she’s not part of Illuminati


Ke$ha – Videography


Rihanna – Videography

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Beyoncé Flashes ‘Illuminati’ Symbol at Super Bowl

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Flashing the secret sign to Beyonce from the crowd at the Superb Owl (lower right) Source: Twitter/noeybels

jay-z-aleister-crowley-Jay-Z Do what thou wilt


Young Jackson 5 Michael Jackson Making Representation of Illuminati Freemason Eye of Horus / Compass; Cult Believed to Have Murdered Michael After He Rebelled

Hip Hop & Freemasonry: Culture Creation – 4/8

Hip Hop & Freemasonry: The New Age & Military Agenda – 1/3

Hip Hop & Freemasonry: The New Age & Military Agenda – 2/3

Hip Hop & Freemasonry: The New Age & Military Agenda – 3/3

The Industry Part 35

Illuminati Project Part 204

America Hijacked by Freemasonry

So much exposure going on that even the Freemasons have to admit that there are Masonic references in hip-hop and rap. But it’s “rare” they claim.

Rihanna The Illuminati Princess Exposed

Rihanna – Princess Of The illuminati (S&M EXposed)

Masonic references in the hip hop and rap community

“While masonic references in hip hop and rap are RARE, and are listed on our page, Masonic references in music, within the rap and hip hop community itself there appears to be a growing, misinformed, awareness of Freemasonry.”

When the countdown hit “0,” Jay rose from beneath the stage, the lyrically intricate “Dynasty Intro” being played by his band, the Roc Boys. Then a brief snippet of “Lucifer” played before Jay went into his jaw-dropping verse from Rick Ross’ “Free Mason.” Eminem, Jay-Z Joined By Dr. Dre, Drake At Historic Detroit Concert

Kanye West’s “Power”: The Occult Meaning of its Symbols

Massive use of Illuminati occult imagery in Ke$ha ‘Die Young’ cult orgy video

Knights of Malta Grandmasters’ armour on show in Paris

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Grandmaster Jean Parisot de Valette’s ceremonial sword and dagger which were looted by Napoleon Bonaparte are being showcased in Paris with items from the Palace Armoury in Valletta.

Times of Malta | Nov 4, 2008

By Lisa Gwen Baldacchino

La Valette’s notorious sword and dagger, plundered by Napoleon Bonaparte as war spoils, forms part of a major armoury exhibition under way in Paris along with two-thirds of the artefacts that form part of Malta’s national collection.

The exhibition is being held at the Musée de l’Armée, also known as the Hôtel des Invalides, Napoleon’s burial place and one of the top armour museums in the world. The museum is a top attraction in Paris, drawing as many as one million visitors per year.

A refectory at the Invalides was fully restored and inaugurated specifically for the event, which will run until January. Some 60 individual pieces of armour have been flown abroad together with 18 paintings, said Michael Stroud, curator of the Palace Armoury, Heritage Malta (HM).

Indeed, those visiting the Armoury in Valletta over the coming months will find a very scanty main showcase, as some of the most important items on permanent display have been included in the Paris exhibition.

Among the more prestigious items are components of the La Valette armour; the full armour believed to have belonged to Jean Jacques de Verdelin as well as that thought to have belonged to Grand Master Martino Garzes; the parade armour of Alof de Wignacourt and the portrait of the same Grandmaster by Leonello Spada, which has been placed on the easel upon which Jean Diminque Ingre’s painting of an enthroned Napoleon is customarily placed.

Other paintings on show are the Beheading of St John by Mattias Stomer and another of St John the Baptist wearing the Order’s habit by Mattia Preti.

Preparations for the exhibition had been underway for a whole year, said Pierre Bonello, HM senior executive for exhibitions and design.

The items were flown to Frankfurt and then escorted overland by incognito security officers to Paris. On arrival in France, it took a whole week to be set up.

Mr Stroud, Mr Bonello and metal conservator Robert Cassar were present throughout the process to ensure it went smoothly.

The costs were largely borne by the French government and by the Musée de l’Armée while the Malta Tourism Authority and Go sponsored the exhibition catalogue.

HM took the exhibition as an opportunity to restore and conserve some of the items prior to putting them on show.

The exhibition was inaugurated by Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi and by the French Minister of Defence, Hervé Morin, on October 20 and will be open for public viewing until next January.

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Jean Parisot de la Valette

Jean Parisot de Valette (born in 1494; died in Malta, 21 August 1568) was born into a noble family in Quercy. He was a Knight of St. John, joining the order in the Langue de Provence, and fought with distinction against the Turks at Rhodes. As Grand Master, Valette became the Order’s hero and most illustrious leader, commanding the resistance against the Ottomans at the Great Siege of Malta in 1565, widely regarded as one the greatest sieges of all time. He became Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller on 21 August 1557.

The Valette family had been an important one in France for many generations, various members having accompanied the Kings of France in the First, Second, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Crusades. Jean Parisot’s grandfather, Bernard de Valette, was a Knight and King’s Orderly, and his father Guillot was a Chevalier de France. Jean Parisot was a distant cousin (through their mutual ancestor Almaric de Valette) of Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, first Duke of Epernon.

Little is known about Valette’s early life, although he was present during the Great Siege of Rhodes in 1523, and accompanied Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, after the Order’s expulsion from Rhodes by the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.

Rise Within the Order

In 1538, while on Malta, Valette was sentenced to four months in a guva (a hole in the ground) on Gozo for nearly beating a layman to death, and he was subsequently exiled to Tripoli for two years to serve as military governor. Upon his return he was punished again for bringing a nigro slave not liable for servitude. In 1541 he was captured and made a galley slave for a year by Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis. In 1554 Valette was elected Captain General of the Order’s galleys. This was a great honour to the Langue of Provence, as throughout most of the Order’s history, the position of Grand Admiral was usually held by a Knight Grand Cross of the Italian Langue. In that capacity he won a name that stood conspicuous in that age of great sea captains, and was held in the same regard as the Chevalier Mathurin Romegas – one of the greatest Christian maritime commanders of the age. In fact both sides had extremely talented sailors. If Valette, Romegas and Juan de Austria could be considered the best commanders that the Christian forces could bring to the sea, the forces of Islam were able to call on the equally outstanding maritime and leadership skills of admirals such as Barbarossa and Dragut. In 1557, upon the death of Grand Master Claude de la Sengle, the Knights, mindful of the attack that was sure to come, elected Valette to be Grand Master.

Siege of Malta

He fought and successfully repulsed the Turks at the Great Siege of Malta (1565), in which the vastly outnumbered Christians held out for over 3 months against an Ottoman force containing no less than 30,000 soldiers, including the notorious Janissaries, as well as the Sultan’s prized fleet of some 40 warships. The desperate battle, which saw the reduction of Fort St. Elmo, was one of immense brutality, and is regarded as one the most famous and desperate sieges of all time. As a result of the Order’s victory he gained much prestige in Europe, but he declined the offer of a cardinal’s hat in order to maintain independence from the papacy. This has been portrayed to his sense of modesty and his humility as a warrior monk. However, it has often been overlooked that as a Grand Master of the Order, he automatically had the same precedence as the most junior Cardinal within the Church and enjoyed a Cardinal’s distinction without being involved in the internal politics of the Holy See. Even from its beginnings, the Grand Master of the Order owed allegiance only to the Pope, and to this day is recognised as the head of an Order which has diplomatic recognition with the United Nations and 100 other countries.

Latvian president inducts Grand Master of the Knights of Malta into the Order of the Three Stars

His Most Eminent Highness Fra’ Matthew Festing, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, Most Humble Guardian of the Poor of Jesus Christ

Zatlers to meet Grand Master of Order of Malta

Baltic Course | Oct 28, 2008

(Riga, 28.10.2008) Today in Riga Castle, President Valdis Zatlers will hold a meeting with His Most Eminent Highness Fra’ Matthew Festing, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta.

After the meeting Zatlers and Festing will hold a joint press briefing, as the President’s Press Office informed LETA.

At 11 a.m. the Grand Master of Order of Malta, together with President, will lay a wreath of flowers by the Freedom Monument, at 7 p.m. Fra’ Matthew Festing will participate in a state dinner, organized in his honor by the president.

The president’s Chapter of Orders have decided to grant 10 Latvia’s state highest State Awards to members of the Order of Malta. The Grand Master Fra’ Matthew Festing will receive the First Class Order of the Three Stars.

Grand Master of the Knights of Malta Matthew Festing of Britain (L) shakes hands with Latvia’s President Valdis Zatlers during their meeting in Riga October 28, 2008.

The president’s public relation advisor, Maija Celmina, confirmed to LETA that the Order of the Three Stars will be bestowed during the framework of the Grand Master Fra’ Matthew Festing’s visit to Latvia, which will last until October 31.

Today, Cabinet of Ministers will review draft project on signing a memorandum of understanding between the governments of Latvia and the Order of Malta. On the side from Latvian government the memorandum of understanding will be signed by the Ambassador of Latvia to the Order of Malta Alberts Sarkanis.

The Latvian Foreign Ministry points out that signing the memorandum will enhance the development of cooperation between Latvia and Malta by diversifying cooperation in the social, humanitarian and health care sectors, as well as setting the framework and guidelines for further relations in the future.

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Matthew Festing


This handout picture supplied by Observatore Romano shows Pope Benedict XVI greeting the new Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, Matthew Festing of Britain (R) during a meeting at the private library of the Pope in Vatican City on June 23, 2008.

Fra’ Matthew Festing, OBE, TD, DL, (born 30 November 1949) is the 79th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. His full title is His Most Eminent Highness Fra’ Matthew Festing, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, Most Humble Guardian of the Poor of Jesus Christ. An Englishman, he has never married.

Fra’ Matthew is the son of Field Marshal Sir Francis Festing (Chief of the Imperial General Staff and also a knight of the Order of Malta) and of his wife, Mary Cecilia Riddell (elder daughter of Cuthbert David Giffard Riddell, of Swinburne Castle, Northumberland). His mother’s family are an old recusant family. He is also descended from the Blessed Sir Adrian Fortescue, a Knight of Malta, who was martyred in 1539. Fra’ Matthew has several brothers, Major Michael Festing and Andrew Festing (current President of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters).

Fra’ Matthew received his early education at the English Roman Catholic public school, Ampleforth College. He graduated in Modern History from St John’s College, Cambridge.

Fra’ Matthew served in the Grenadier Guards and holds the rank of colonel in the Territorial Army. He was Acting Colonel of the Northumbria Army Cadet Force. In June 1998 he was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth, for whom he has served as a Deputy Lieutenant in the county of Northumberland.

Fra’ Matthew is a patron of the Sandhurst Foundation and a trustee of the Northumbria Historic Churches Trust. Until 2008 he was the Northumberland representative for the auction house Sotheby’s.

Fra’ Matthew was admitted to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 1977. In 1988 he became a Knight of Justice. In 1991 he took Perpetual Vows. In 1993 he was elected Grand Prior of England, the first since 1815.

On March 11, 2008, Fra’ Matthew was elected Grand Master during a conclave-style meeting at the Order’s villa on Aventine Hill in Rome. He is the third British Grand Master of the Order, immediately succeeding the second, Fra’ Andrew Bertie. (The first was Hugh Revel in 1258).


Valdis Zatlers and Islam Karimov

Valdis Zatlers and Islam Karimov discussed bilateral cooperation

The two men also discussed the situation in Afghanistan, where Latvian soldiers are stationed as part of the NATO mission in the country. Without the support of Uzbekistan and the rest of the countries in Central Asia, a successful mission in the country is not possible, Zatlers pointed out.

Latvian Order of the Three Stars

The Three-Star Order (Order of the Three Stars) was established in 1924 to commemorate the founding of the Latvian State on November 18, 1918. The Order’s motto is Per aspera ad astra (Through thorns toward the stars), as testimony to the fact that great achievements are often attained in the face of adversity, toil and suffering. The Order is conferred in recognition of outstanding civil merit in the service of Latvia.

The Order has five classes (represented by enamelled crosses), which are followed by three grades of honour (represented by medals). The five classes of the Order are as follows:

I – Commander of the Grand Cross;

II – Grand Officer;

III – Commander;

IV – Officer;

V – Chevalier (Knight).

The cross of the Order is a white enamel Maltese cross set in gilded edges. A round, cobalt-blue enamel medallion with three golden, five-pointed stars encircled by a golden ribbon graces the centre of the cross. The reverse centre of the cross is a gilded medallion with the inscription LATVIJAS / REPUBLIKA / 1918. G. 18. NO-VEMBRIS (Republic / of Latvia / November 18, 1918). An encircling golden ribbon bears the motto PER ASPERA AD ASTRA.

The cross of the Order is suspended from a golden wreath.

Order of the Three Stars

Order of the Three Stars (Latvian: Triju Zvaigžņu ordenis) is order awarded for merits in service for Latvia. It was established in 1924 in remembrance of founding of Latvia. Its motto is “Per aspera ad astra”. The Order has five ranks and three grades of medals of honour.

The cross

The cross of the order is white enamel cross within gilded edges. In the center of the front side of the cross there is blue enamel medallion with three golden five-point stars on it. The reverse side has gilded medallion with inscriptions “Per aspera ad astra” and “Latvijas Republika — 1918.g.18. novembris” (English: Republic of Latvia – 18 November 1918). The order has five classes:

The Stars

The Stars are first and second rate orders. The first rate order and the second rate order, (the great star and the small star, respectively) have similar design and differ only in size. The stars are in shape of five point star made of silver with blue enamel medallion with three golden five-point stars in its center. On its edge there is inscription “Par Tēviju” (English: For Fatherland).

Chain of the Order

Chain of the Order is awarded to Commander of the Grand Cross in exceptional cases. It has ten gilded links with alternately chiseled images of three stars, fire-cross, lion and griffin.

Medal of honour

Medal of honour is a round medal on front of which the cross of the order is depicted. The reverse side has inscription “Par Tēviju” with flaming heart below the inscription. It has wreath of oak leaves on its edge. The medal of honour has three grades – gold, silver and bronze.

Fascist grandmaster of infamous P2 Masonic Lodge to be interviewed on TV talk show

Gelli said “I will die a fascist” and expressed his admiration for Berlusconi.

P2 has been at the centre of a number of investigations into allegations that it conspired with right-wing extremists and the Mafia to destabilise governments through bombings and violence, often blamed on extreme leftists.

Italian ex-freemason boss to appear on TV show

Welt | Nov 1, 2008

To the outrage of democratic politicians and much of the general public, Licio Gelli, infamous former chief of the Propaganda Due (P2), is set to give his version of events on an Italian TV show tracing Italy’s history from fascism to the 1980’s.

The former head of an outlawed masonic lodge linked to some of Italy’s biggest scandals has sparked an outcry by announcing that he will take part in a television talk show to give his version of events.

Licio Gelli, the 89-year old former grandmaster of the shadowy Propaganda 2 (P2) group, will be the main guest in “Venerabile Italia” (Venerable Italy), a programme on Italy’s history from fascism to the 1980s.

The P2 was founded in 1969 and used to be the country’s most powerful secret organisation with prominent politicians, business leaders and military officers as members.

It has been at the centre of a number of investigations into allegations that it conspired with right-wing extremists and the Mafia to destabilise governments through bombings and violence, often blamed on extreme leftists.

“I find it disconcerting that a character like Licio Gelli could become some sort of TV star,” said Anna Finocchiaro, the head of the opposition Partito Democratico in the Senate.

Conservative Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi’s allies also balked at the prospect.

Gelli was sentenced to 12 years in jail for fraud in connection with the 1982 collapse of Banco Ambrosiano, whose boss Roberto Calvi — known as “God’s banker” for his ties to the Vatican — was found hanged under Blackfriars Bridge in London.

Gelli was also found guilty of obstructing justice during investigations into one of the darkest episodes in Italy’s recent past, the 1980 explosion of a bomb at the Bologna train station which killed 85 people.

He was extradited back to Italy from France in 1998 after escaping from prison in Switzerland and spending some time on the run in South America.

At a news conference in Florence on Friday, Gelli said “I will die a fascist” and expressed his admiration for Berlusconi.

Osvaldo Napoli, a member of Berlusconi’s People of Freedom party said “Gelli’s backing of the government was unsolicited”, calling his return to the scene “alarming”.

Lucia Leonessi, a journalist who has written a biography of Gelli and will host the TV programme, defended her work, saying Gelli had played a significant role in the country’s history.

“He is a prominent figure,” she told Reuters.

The first of the TV show’s nine episodes will air on Monday on Odeon TV, a privately owned network of regional TV stations broadcast across Italy. The network said the series would give historians “food for thought”.

Related

Operation Gladio

Arms caches were hidden, escape routes prepared, and loyal members recruited: i.e. mainly hardline anticommunists, including many ex-Nazis or former fascists, whether in Italy or in other European countries. In Germany, for example, Gladio had as a central focus the Gehlen Org — also involved in ODESSA “ratlines” — named after Reinhard Gehlen who would become West Germany’s first head of intelligence, while the predominantly Italian P2 masonic lodge was composed of many members of the neofascist Italian Social Movement (MSI), including Licio Gelli. Its clandestine “cells” were to stay behind (hence the name) in enemy controlled territory and to act as resistance movements, conducting sabotage, guerrilla warfare and assassinations.

P2 was outlawed and disbanded in 1981, in the wake of the Banco Ambrosiano scandal, which was linked to the Mafia and to the Vatican Bank. Its Grand Master, Licio Gelli, was involved in most of Italy’s scandals in the last three decades of the 20th century: Banco Ambrosiano’s crash; Tangentopoli, which gave rise to the Mani pulite (“Clean hands”) anticorruption operation in the 1990s; the kidnapping and the murder of Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978 – the head of the secret services at the time, accused of negligence, was a piduista (P2 member). Licio Gelli has often said he was a friend of Argentine President Juan Perón. In any case, some members of Jorge Videla’s junta were discovered to be piduista, such as José López Rega, founder of the infamous anticommunist organization Triple A, Raúl Alberto Lastiri or Emilio Massera. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert US funds for the Solidarnosc trade union movement in Poland and the Contras in Nicaragua.

Propaganda Due

Propaganda Due or P2 was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1877 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn), and a pseudo-Masonic or “black” or “covert” lodge operating illegally from 1976 to 1981. During the 1980s, when the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli, the collapse of the Vatican-affiliated Banco Ambrosiano, and the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi. P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona’s financial empire.

P2 was sometimes referred to as a “state within a state” or a “shadow government“. The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, parliamentarians, industrialists, and military leaders — including the then-future Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi; the Savoy pretender to the Italian throne Victor Emmanuel; and the heads of all three Italian intelligence services.

When searching Licio Gelli’s villa, the police found a document called the “Plan for Democratic Rebirth“, which called for a consolidation of the media, suppression of trade unions, and the rewriting of the Italian Constitution.

Licio Gelli

Occupation: Financier, Worshipful Master

Licio Gelli (born in Pistoia, Tuscany, April 21, 1919) is an Italian financier, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal. He was revealed in 1981 as being the Worshipful Master of the clandestine Masonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2).

During the 1930s, Licio Gelli volunteered for the “Black Shirt” expeditionary forces sent by Mussolini to Spain in support to Francisco Franco, and subsequently became a liaison officer between the Italian blackshirt government and the Third Reich, with contacts including Hermann Göring. He participated in the Italian Social Republic with Giorgio Almirante, founder of the neofascist Italian Social Movement (MSI)..

As headmaster of Propaganda Due, Gelli allegedly assumed a major role in Gladio’s “strategy of tension” in Italy, starting with the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing. Gladio was a clandestine “stay-behind” operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Western European countries, which has been involved in terrorist false flags operations in Italy.

Grande Oriente d’Italia

The Grande Oriente d’Italia or Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) is a masonic organization based at Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome. It was founded in 1805.

Past grand masters included Giuseppe Garibaldi, the sculptor Ettore Ferrari, the mayor of Rome Ernesto Nathan and Giuseppe Mazzini.

In 1894 there were moves from some of the lodges in the Grande Oriente to expel former Prime Minister Francesco Crispi for being too friendly towards the Catholic Church.

Freemasonry was suppressed by Mussolini in 1925, being restarted after the Second World War.

In 1972 it was recognized as regular by the United Grand Lodge of England.

Propaganda Due, a pseudo-masonic lodge that was implicated in the murder of Roberto Calvi, was originally chartered by the Grand Orient.

How Jewish is Nathaniel Rothschild?

Is he too Blue to be Jewish?

Jewish Chronicle | Oct 30, 2008

Nathaniel is at the centre of a row involving George Osborne, whom he alleged requested illegal donations to the Conservative party. But is this one of the Jewish Rothschilds?

For: The Honourable Nathaniel Philip Victor James Rothschild, known as Nat, is the 35-year-old scion of wealthy Jewish banking family the Rothschilds. His father, Jacob Rothschild, is the fourth Baron Rothschild, who follows the financial family’s charitable interests in Israel and is the chairman of Yad Hanadiv, the family foundation which gave the Knesset and the Supreme Court buildings to Israel. Nat is director of the Rothschild Foundation, which aims to support and strengthen Jewish life in Europe. He has been linked with Hollywood’s haimishe princess Natalie Portman, and says he would like to meet a nice Jewish girl. Now, could this be the ultimate 100% man?

Against: Oy, if only. It’s not that bankers have suddenly become less-than-eligible son-in-law material. It’s that Nat’s mother, the Canadian Serena Mary Dunn, is not Jewish. Plus, educated at Eton, Nat went on at Oxford to become a member of the distinctly Waspish Bullingdon Club, famous for its drinking binges – and we’re not talking Palwin. And far from being obviously neurotic, Mr Rothschild had a distinctly unstereotypical reputation as a playboy. He also married Annabelle Neilson in Las Vegas, without the help of a rabbi.

Verdict: His blood is too blue to be Jewish.

So we say he is 48% Jewish

Related

Nathaniel Philip Rothschild

Wikipedia

The Honourable Nathaniel Philip Victor James Rothschild, known as Nat, (born 12 July 1971) is a British financier who is Co-Chairman of Atticus Capital LP, a 2004 Young Global Leader, and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of England.

Nathaniel Philip Rothschild is the youngest of four children and only son of Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild and Serena Mary Dunn, whose grandfather was the Canadian financier and industrialist, Sir James Dunn. As the son of a baron, he is entitled to be styled “The Honourable”.[1] He was educated at Colet Court (in the same year as George Osborne), Eton College and Wadham College, Oxford. Rothschild was a member of the Bullingdon Club as an undergraduate, at the same time as George Osborne now the Conservative Party shadow chancellor.[2]

Rothschild began his career in 1994 at Lazard Brothers Asset Management in London, before joining Gleacher Partners, the New York-based mergers and acquisitions (M&A) advisory firm founded by Eric Gleacher, former head of M&A at Morgan Stanley and Lehman Brothers.

Rothschild is the co-chairman of Atticus Capital LP, an international investment management firm established in 1995, that has offices in New York and London. He is also a director of RIT Capital Partners plc, and a director of The Rothschild Foundation. In 2006, he was appointed chairman of Trigranit, a Hungarian developer of which he is a major shareholder.

Rothschild is a member of the Belfer Center‘s International Council at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and the International Advisory Council of the Brookings Institution. He is also a member of the International Advisory Board of the Barrick Gold Corporation. He was nominated as a “Young Global Leader” by the World Economic Forum in 2005.


Jordanian art gallery exhibits photos of aristocratic Victorian costume ball

Mrs. Arthur Paget, Later Lady Paget née Mary (Minnie) Stevens
(1853 – 1919) as Cleopatra

Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII, costumed at the ball as Grand Master of the Knights Hopitallers of Malta

The Queen threatened to cancel the celebrations should she be forced to contribute to the costs. Eventually the money came from public funds.

Jordan Times | Oct 28, 2008

An enriching history lesson

By Ica Wahbeh

The Victorian court and high society lifestyle, historical accounts, social mores, cultural influences and thorough physical descriptions form part of the rich, intriguing, juicy information provided by the photos and their captions on exhibit at the Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts.

Dreams of Orient & Occident

Organised in collaboration with the Victoria and Albert Museum of London, “Dreams of Orient and Occident” is a most astonishing selection of portraits taken on the occasion of the “Duchess of Devonshire’s historic ball at Devonshire House last week”, writes the Photographic News on July 9, 1897. It was an event that necessitated a photographic studio where “a camera was much in request to record some of the wonderfully accurate costumes worn by the guests…. A photographic record of the scene and those who took part in it was not doubt secured, and in future times, when the doings of this great year are calmly narrated…, its interest will be extremely deep”.

The costume ball was brought on by Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, on July 2, 1897, an occasion that “was celebrated, in the press at least, with a feeling of exhilaration and respect tinged with hysteria”.

Louisa, Duchess of Devonshire, one of London’s foremost political hostesses, decided to hold the ball, on which occasion, instead of trying to compete, other London hostesses “invested all their efforts into ensuring that they were on the guest list”.

And so over 700 invitations were sent out (figures went up to 3,000 in some reports of the event) in advance, for the invitees to have time to prepare their costumes, sending into a frenzy “the best dressmakers, wigmakers, theatrical costumiers and even metalworkers in London and Paris” and soliciting the imagination of the aristocracy, especially women, who had to study “portraits and engravings of ladies ‘robed for coronation or beheading’ in London museums”.

Fortunes were spent, but not in vain, as the London photographic firm of Lafayette was invited to set up a tent in the garden behind the house to photograph the guests in costume during the ball, immortalising them for posterity.

“This would have been a formidable commission for James Stack Lauder, the owner of the firm, and evidence from the extant negatives shows that he had transported from the Bond Street studio a variety of backdrops and props and, of course photographic equipment.”

The result is tens of portraits – some taken after the ball for, “due to the complexity of their costumes and the exposure times needed for the glass plate negatives, there simply was not enough time to capture all the guests”, and “the knowledge that an album would be published with portraits of the guests in costume may well have led those who were not satisfied with the results of the hurried photographic session to visit the Lafayette studio once or twice more with their costumes, some people up to six months after the event” – of costume-clad “upper class” individuals for who “dressing up in historical costume to present a tableau vivant was a popular and respectable amusement and means of shedding some of the period’s cast-iron inhibitions – even at the sullen court of Queen Victoria”.

Richly decorated attire, an abundance of jewellery, famous people and precious details about the personae, historical facts, background and life document an era and social class, make interesting history and are aesthetically enchanting.

Stiff or languorous, the poses tell much about the character and about the “deference” imposed by the camera.

Mythical or historical characters inspire the costumes, as do literature, poetry, opera, theatre and the fine arts. The fascination with the Orient shows in the costumes representing Cleopatra, the Queen of Sheba, Semiramis or Zenobia.

The artistic value of the portraits is incontestable, but the witty, flippant and ultimately true statements about the characters make perusing them an appealing lesson, removed from the dry, date-engorged history class most learners try to shirk.

Thus the viewer reads that “preparations for the Diamond Jubilee of 1897 started six years earlier at which time the Queen threatened to cancel the celebrations should she be forced to contribute to the costs”. Eventually the money came from public funds.

The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), as Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers of Malta, at the Devonshire House Ball, 1897.

Or that Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII, costumed at the ball as Grand Master of the Knights Hopitallers of Malta, “in 1897 was in the unfortunate position of being 56 and still prevented by his mother, Queen Victoria, from playing any role in state affairs” because “she despised the life her son and his fast friends led”. Yet, “for all the misgivings expressed about his capabilities and morals by the press upon his accession, he proved to be not only a popular, but also a dutiful and wise monarch”.

Or that Mrs Arthur Paget, later Lady Paget, dressed at the ball as Cleopatra, was left by her wealthy hotelier father Paran Stevens “the fantastic sum of ten million dollars”, which enabled her to do charitable work. For the ball, she “commissioned one of the most spectacular and certainly the most expensive costumes from Worth of Paris at a reputed cost of over $6,000. The train is of black crêpe de chine, embroidered with gold scarabs. The bodice, encrusted with gold and diamonds, is held up on the shoulders with straps of large emeralds and diamonds. The square headdress is made of cloth of gold with striped black and gold sphinx-like side pieces studded with diamonds, and incrusted with diamonds”.

The details are indeed rich and captivating. The images are fascinating and art lovers should be grateful for being given the chance to have a glimpse at these photographs.

The selection of portraits, as the organisers say, “attempts to show how the late-Victorian mind, on one night in 1897, indulged its fantasies. Mostly freed from the constraints of money, the sitters in these portraits interpreted their dreams of history and mythology by drawing on the cream of literature, painting, poetry and music. The occidental personalities at this costume ball also give an insight into how the West reimagined itself in a similarly romantic fashion”.

For a leisurely view of the photographs, the gallery has them on display until November 20.

Thailand plans to block websites insulting to the royal family

AFP | Oct 28, 2008

BANGKOK (AFP) — The Thai government is considering spending up to 14 million dollars on technology to block websites it deems insulting to the country’s monarchy, the communications minister said Tuesday.

The army chief and prime minister have recently accused unnamed groups of defaming the royals, a grave crime in Thailand that carries a maximum jail sentence of 15 years, but which media groups say is often used as a political tool.

The royal family’s role in politics has been a touchy subject in recent months as street protests by an anti-government group claiming loyalty to the monarchy drag on. The king has not commented on the recent turmoil.

“There is a growing number of websites that attack the monarchy, and the ministry is consulting to buy a blocker that costs between 100 and 500 million baht (2.8 and 14 million dollars),” said communications minister Mun Patanotai.

“More than 80 percent of these websites are from overseas,” he added.

Mun told reporters that his ministry had recently received more than 1,000 complaints about websites slighting the royal family.

Thailand made headlines around the world last year when it blocked the popular video-sharing website YouTube after clips started appearing mocking the deeply-revered King Bhumibol Adulyadej.

This and similar moves to implement tougher laws controlling cyberspace prompted press freedom watchdogs to warn of increasing censorship after a coup that overthrew Thaksin Shinawatra in 2006.

Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat had earlier Tuesday threatened to prosecute anyone who tried to drag the monarchy into politics.

“The government, officials, military, police, and every Thai must all uphold the monarchy,” he told reporters.

“I have already ordered (officials) to decisively prosecute anyone who criticises the monarchy — no faction should use the monarchy.”

Members of the protest group the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD) drape themselves in yellow — the colour associated with the king — and frequently make reference to the royal family.

Two PAD supporters died in clashes with police on October 7, and many members claimed the support of the queen when she made a rare appearance at the funeral of one of the dead protesters.

She has also donated hundreds of thousands of baht to cover the medical expenses of those injured in the clashes.

Maltese freemasons go public on the internet

Bribery allegations against former Magistrate Patrick Vella and former Chief Justice Noel Arrigo, rekindled the debate on the alleged close links between the judiciary and freemasonry, when TVM programme Bondiplus aired secret footage of Maltese freemasons gathered in ritual.

Malta Today | Oct 26, 2008

by Matthew Vella

After years of notoriety as a secret society, and a raging debate over the alleged membership of public officials, Malta’s freemasons have gone public with a fully-fledged website describing their activities, history and also their statute.

Malta’s freemasons now welcome the public to go beyond its portrayal “as a secret, self-serving, or sinister society”, to one whose motivation centres on “humility, tolerance, and charity”.

Malta’s lodges from the English, Scottish and Irish Constitutions congregated in one single Grand Lodge in 2004, when the Leinster, Abercorn and Fenici lodges of the Irish Constitution resolved to create a Maltese grand lodge, with ‘Brother’ Joseph P. Cordina as its “most worshipful grand master”.

And with that comes a more transparent approach to their activities, after years attracting some of the most sensationalist of coverage.

“We abide by the laws of the State and are critical of those in violation, and expect similar from those around us. We recognise there are some who regard our titling of officers, our terminology, our formal dress codes, and our conduct, as rather quaint in a modern society: but we are unapologetic in adhering to our traditions,” the grand master writes in his welcoming statement.

Freemasonry was largely viewed with suspicion in Malta, mainly due to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church and its antipathy towards masonic lodges.

The acrimonious relationship was best characterised when Lord Gerald Strickland, the leader of the Constitutional Party, was said to have been seen wearing the freemasons’ garb, in an affidavit signed by Ettore Bono, who was working as a waiter during a freemasons’ activity in Valletta.

The pre-electoral effect of ‘Terinu’, as Bono was nicknamed, was devastating for Strickland.

Then in 1990, news that Magistrate Carol Peralta had been the “Worshipful Master” of Leinster lodge before being appointed magistrate, fuelled speculation about the impartiality of public officers.

A decade later, the bribery allegations against former Magistrate Patrick Vella and former Chief Justice Noel Arrigo, rekindled the debate on the alleged close links between the judiciary and freemasonry, when TVM programme Bondiplus aired secret footage of Maltese freemasons gathered in ritual.

That turbulent period does not go unnoticed in the Sovereign Grand Lodge’s ‘history’ in its website:

“The autumn of 2002 was to provide an unlikely catalyst for changes in matters Masonic on Malta. The national television channel aired a sensationalist ‘exposé’ programme, based on secretly filmed Masonic Lodge proceedings by a brother,” with reference to the secret footage filmed by the private investigator Joe Zahra – a former freemason who at the time worked for the Bondiplus team.

The freemasons say the programme “served to embarrass Maltese masons living and working in a dominantly Catholic environment known to disfavour freemasonry. An understandable furore over disciplinary action ensued and there can be no doubt but that wavering opinions as to the potential creation of an independent Maltese Grand Lodge were swayed in favour at this time.”
Since that time however, Maltese freemasonry does not seem to have dwindled, with three subordinate lodges, the Hospitaliers Lodge, the Ars Discendi Lodge, and the Loggia Flos Mundi, being constituted in recent years.

The grand lodge’s main quarters is at Casa Viani in Valletta, which housed the Lodge of St John and St Paul, founded in 1815 by Walter Rodwell Wright, Chief Justice of Malta from 1814 to 1826.

Related

Freemasonry in Malta

Many knights of the Order of St. John and some of the Maltese nobility were freemasons. In 1756, the Grand Master of the Order was a freemason named E. Pinto de Fonseca. De Rohan, who was Grandmaster of the Order of St. John between 1775 and 1797, is reported also to have been a freemason, and is said to have helped the spread of freemasonry in Malta and to have been heavily censured by the Roman Catholic Church in Rome. The first Masonic lodges operated in Malta under French warrants generally obtained from Marseilles, but under the guidance of Count von Kollowrat, the Scotch Lodge of St. John of Marseilles petitioned the Grand Lodge of the Moderns in England to obtain an English warrant on the 30th June, 1788. This lodge noted in its petition that the most important members of the Order of St. John ranked amongst its membership. The lodge obtained an English warrant as the Lodge of St. John of Secrecy and Harmony.

Pope’s brother plans 100,000 euro Vatican birthday bash in honor of himself

A file picture taken 29 June 1951 shows Josef Ratzinger (R) and his brother Georg in Freising, Bavaria, during their ordination. Germany’s Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected the 265th pope of the Roman Catholic Church on 19 April 2005 and took the name Benedict XVI. The costs of the birthday festivities will be covered by the Regensburg diocese, mainly from money taken off the so-called Church Tax, a levy unique to Germany and Austria that was introduced by Adolf Hitler. AFP PHOTO

Related

Pope says financial crisis shows money is an illusion
The brother of Pope Benedict XVI in embroiled in a controversy over an alleged 100,000-euro birthday bash that is to be paid for by the Catholic Church.

Telegraph | Oct 27, 2008

Georg Ratzinger, a Catholic prelate from Regensburg and the elder brother of the pontiff, is to celebrate his 85th birthday by listening to Mozart’s Mass in C-Minor performed for him in the Sistine Chapel, according to reports.

A German church choir of 90 singers and 37 musicians from the Linz baroque orchestra L’Orfeo in Austria will be flown to Rome for the January 15 event, according to the German magazine Focus.

The magazine also claimed that the costs of the festivities will be covered by the Regensburg diocese, mainly from money taken off the so-called Church Tax, a levy unique to Germany and Austria that was introduced by Adolf Hitler. The dictator wanted to make the Church less popular by taxing all practising Catholics in the Third Reich, but the regulation has survived his rule and maintains to this day.

The news about the Pope’s brother’s exclusive birthday party was met with criticism by Catholic associations from his own Regensburg diocese, who objected to the decision to finance the bash with the Church Tax.

“Georg Ratzinger should be able to have the party, but it must not be financed by Church Tax money,” said Sigrid Grabmeier, spokesman of the Regensburg diocese laity association We Are The Church, adding that such monies were intended to sponsor pastoral care in hospitals and similar charity projects.

Prelate Ratzinger and the Regensburg diocese were not available for a comment.