A history of US secret human experimentation

atomic-soldiers

Soldiers being exposed to a nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site in 1951

Press TV | Sep 26, 2007

1931 Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells.

He later goes on to establish the US Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the US Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.

1932 The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.

1935 The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the US Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occurred within poverty-stricken black populations.

1940 Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to
combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

1942 Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.

1943 In response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program, the US begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.

1944 US Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.

1945 Project Paperclip is initiated. The US State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret government projects in the United States.

1945 “Program F” is implemented by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive US study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.

1946 Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word “experiments” to “investigations” or “observations” whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.

1947 Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the US Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947 The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

1950 Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates.

1950 I n an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the US Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Francisco. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.

1951 Department of Defense begins open-air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.

1953 US military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocracy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.

1953 Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.

1953 CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven-year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.

1955 The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from the Army’s biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.

1955 Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

1956 US military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.

1958 LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army’s Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.

1960 The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field-testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the European population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

1965 Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs.

1965 Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.

1966 CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.

1966 US Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop light bulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates.

1967 CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and chemical weapons.

1968 CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in Washington, D.C.

1969 Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.

1970 Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army’s top-secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.

1970 United States intensifies its development of “ethnic weapons” (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and variations in DNA.

1975 The virus section of Fort Detrick’s Center for Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the US Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).

1977 Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.

1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1981 First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine

1985 According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.

1986 According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.

1986 A report to Congress reveals that the US Government’s current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing vaccines.

1987 Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation.

1990 More than 1500 six-month old black and Hispanic babies in Los Angeles are given an “experimental” measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.

1994 With a technique called “gene tracking,” Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.

1994 Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Persian Gulf War.

1995 US Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research.

1995 Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Persian Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.

1996 Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.

1997 Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Persian Gulf War Syndrome.

. . .

Related

Project SHAD
Project SHAD stands for Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense, a series of Cold War-era tests by the U.S. military of biological weapons and chemical weapons. Exposures of uninformed and unwilling humans during the testing to the test substances, particularly the exposure to U.S. military veterans then in service, has added controversy to recent revelations of the project.

US CODE: Title50, Chapter 32 – Use of Chemicals on US Citizens

§ 1520a. Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents

(a) Prohibited activities

The Secretary of Defense may not conduct (directly or by contract)—

(1) any test or experiment involving the use of a chemical agent or biological agent on a civilian population; or

(2) any other testing of a chemical agent or biological agent on human subjects.

(b) Exceptions

Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e) of this section, the prohibition in subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a test or experiment carried out for any of the following purposes:

(1) Any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity.

(2) Any purpose that is directly related to protection against toxic chemicals or biological weapons and agents.

(3) Any law enforcement purpose, including any purpose related to riot control.

(c) Informed consent required

The Secretary of Defense may conduct a test or experiment described in subsection (b) of this section only if informed consent to the testing was obtained from each human subject in advance of the testing on that subject.

(d) Prior notice to Congress

Not later than 30 days after the date of final approval within the Department of Defense of plans for any experiment or study to be conducted by the Department of Defense (whether directly or under contract) involving the use of human subjects for the testing of a chemical agent or a biological agent, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report setting forth a full accounting of those plans, and the experiment or study may then be conducted only after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date such report is received by those committees.

(e) “Biological agent” defined

In this section, the term “biological agent” means any micro-organism (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiac, or protozoa), pathogen, or infectious substance, and any naturally occurring, bioengineered, or synthesized component of any such micro-organism, pathogen, or infectious substance, whatever its origin or method of production, that is capable of causing—

(1) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism;

(2) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or materials of any kind; or

(3) deleterious alteration of the environment.

Advertisements

6 responses to “A history of US secret human experimentation

  1. Pingback: A History of U.S. Secret Human Experimentation » Real Liberal Christian Church

  2. David H. Marshall

    David H. Marshall mailto:jakegreenchappy@yahoo.com

    A FOR THE GREATER GOOD OF ALL?

    Given a past 50 years of not corrected performance, do not the 1994 U.S. Senate Rockefeller Report “IS MILITARY RESEARCH HAZARDOUS TO VETERANS’ HEALTH? LESSONS SPANNING HALF A CENTURY” violations continue? Outlined is the USAF and VA from 1952 covering up acts on SEVENTY SEVEN (77) servicemen for the greater good of all. These personnel were identified by name and Air Force Serial Number to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for treatment. They were subjected to the without protection then known certain injury of an at least 87,381 sound pressure multiple (X) to an over 699,051 X vs. the ignored required protection at a maximum of 59 X! There has been no VA response.

    BACKGROUND.

    The American Medical Association (AMA) “Sound and noise levels” table states that “SOUND PRESSURE DOUBLES WITH AN INCREASE OF 6 DECIBELS”. The AMA table in conjunction with the 1948 Air Force Regulation (AFR) 160-3, the USAF 1952 to 1956 Project 7210 and this veteran’s retained 1952 to 1956 USAF service records underlie the issue. A BVA letter records a 4 April 2008 lost evidence, “We are writing to you about your appeal pending before the Board of Veterans’ Appeals (BVA or Board). According to our records, your claim file was received at the Board on January 28, 2006. However, despite extensive search efforts, we are currently unable to locate your file.” An ongoing 17 years, over one (1) foot thick, now “unable to locate” compilation of from 1952 USAF, VA, Veteran Service Organizations, HMO and independent records. A 10/16/08 postmarked, undated letter from the VA Boston Office stated “…because of insufficient or inaccurate information we cannot identify the proper record.” This is the veteran’s from 4/4/08 to 11/7/08, five times submitted total of over 100 “certified” replacement copies. The BVA’s statement is in reference to the 7/9/57 Boston, MA. VA Rating Board’s Clear and Unmistakable Error (CUE), i.e., a from 3/26/04 Meniere’s Disease retroactive to 1956 claim.

    The 1948 AFR 160-3 established “Precautionary Measures Against Noise Hazards” ordered that, “In this 1948 Medical Services regulation, overall exposures were never to exceed 95 dBA and were recommended to be kept below 85 dBA.” The 1948 “Noise Hazards” is a follow-on to the World War II V-51R provided hearing protection for anyone working in 90 dB or greater noise levels. “Had some trouble with hearing while working on warm-up crew for F-86 D with very high noise levels.” The physician’s statement in the veteran’s 29 Jan 54 USAF Cadet Wing Commander washout exam. The F-86 D was powered by the GE J47 jet-engine. The J47’s operating range was the 1952 known Project 7210 “very high noise levels” of a from 158 to 176 dB vs. the AFR 160-3 “never to exceed 95 dBA”! Starting from the AMA’s 60 dB “Normal conversation” level, this is a “sound pressure doubles with an increase of 6 decibels” of an unprotected 1952 to 1956 from 87,381 multiple (X) to an over 699,051 X vs. the Regulation disobeyed without protection 1948 maximum 59 X. A USAF physician on 2/1/54 stated “it is unusual to find such a severe deafness”. Then the physician’s 7/29/54 and 7/21/55 ignored get him off the flight line memo and do not expose to “loud acoustic trauma”. The 5/21/56 Separation from Service recorded perfect hearing.

    CLEAR AND UNMISTAKABLE ERROR.

    On 5/7/57 VA Boston Regional Office requested and stamped as 6/3/57 received the veterans 6/25/52 to 5/21/56 service record. Then the VA, Boston, MA, Regional Office (RO) Rating Board’s 7/9/57 awarded hearing loss only ERROR. This is proven by their 7/9/57 Rating Board’s attending physician’s evidence resultant USAF SURGEON’S 6/25/58, “PERMANENTLY MEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED FOR MILITARY SERVICE”! Despite repeated requests there has been no VA response to the “permanently medically disqualified”. Then its ‘must of been a mistake’ and very effective symptoms of Menieres Disease disguising six (6) months later 1/22/59 “HONORABLE DISCHARGE” WITH “RECOMMENDED FOR REENLISTMENT – YES”. In 1965 VA medical personnel noted the veteran’s, “History – Exposure to jet noise and decompression concussion”, i.e., an unprotected over 176 dB, at 699,051 X vs. a maximum allowed 95 dB, at 59 X.

    “THE VETERANS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MENIERES DISEASE CLEARLY ARE DOCUMENTED IN HIS SERVICE RECORD” with the results of “A STRESS REACTION MAY PRECIPIRATE AN EPISODE OF SYMPTOMS (OF MENIERE’S DISEASE), AND CYCLES MAY REPEAT ENDLESSLY”. This is the VA Chief of Otolaryngology’s 9/15/99 statement regarding the since 1861 medically known disease.

    “CERTIFIED” RECORDS.

    In 1991 acting on the “episode of symptoms” business failures and unemployment advice of HMO physicians the veteran went back to the VA. A 12/7/92 USAF letter stated that most of the veterans records had been destroyed in a 1973 National Personnel Records Center Fire.. In the few surviving records received all names had been censored by Congress’s 1974 Privacy Act. A 10/5/94 VA Criminal Investigator noted that their 6/3/57 stamped received service records and resulting 1958 and 1959 documents could not be found. On 8/2/95 a VA Hearing Officer “certified” copies of the veteran’s 1952 to 1995 retained records as in the VA file. The “certified” 1952-1956 records are the 9/15/99 ones cited by the VA Chief of Otolaryngology. On 3/26/04 the local RO awarded a Menieres disease retroactive to 8/11/94 disability. On 7/25/05 the VA rediscovered their 1991 misplaced original and stamped 6/3/57 received 1952-1956 USAF and then to-date Medical History. A VA 100% unemployability disability was awarded on 3/8/06 with its cited, “Social Security Administrative Law Judge determination concluded the veteran was entitled to disability benefits solely as a result of his service connected condition.” This is the 1/28/97 Law Judge’s early Social Security disability decision that recognized the 1952-1956 “certified” in-service Menieres disease records! Now the 4/4/08 BVA “we are currently unable to locate your file.” with the 10/16/08 VA “cannot identify the proper record.”

    AND THE SEVENTY SIX (76) OTHERS??

  3. David H. Marshall

    The VA didn’t know?
    From 1956 is the Project 7210 known certain jet engine injury for ALL UNPROTECTED flight line and navy deck personnel. It is requested that you ask your congressional representatives to make sure that oversight and accountability is realized for all. This is for a 1948 required but ignored 95 decibels (dB) noise level, without protection injury. It is a sound pressure multiple (X) of 59 times that of a normal conservation. Accordingly, a then 1956 Project 7210 known certain disability from an unprotected sound pressure of 6,144 X (@ 135 dB) to 815,583 X (@ 177 dB) exposure.
    A mysterious disappearance of proof!
    A 2009 visit to the Project 7210 “contrails.iit.edu” site revealed that the under its “search”, using “TR 54-401”, the 130 page jet engine noise levels Report has disappeared! This is the proof of the U. S. Military’s unprotected jet engine very high noise levels that ranged from 135 dB to 177 dB. It was a then known certain injury in direct disobedience of the 1948 Air Force Regulation (AFR) 160-3. A follow on to the Harvard Univ. WWII V-51R hearing protection. This is the AFR 160-3 required protection at a 95 dB. maximum noise level with a sound pressure multiple (X) of 59. The USAF Wright Air Development Center “contrails.iit.edu” site had the July 1956, Project 7210, Technical Report (TR) 54-401. Recorded, at a radius of 50 feet, are the noise levels for 27 versions of 10 jet-engines in 1947 to 1956 U. S. Military service. This previously received, now vanished from site report is available on request. The sound pressure multiple (X) source is the American Medical Association (AMA) Family Medical Guide 3d. Edition page 365, also email available. Its 60 dB “Normal conversation” is the base line for the calculated AMA “….sound pressure doubles with an increase of 6 decibels”. Accordingly, the 27 versions of the10 jet-engines have overall sound pressure multiples ranging from a low of 6,144 X (@ 135 dB) to a high of 815,583 X (@ 177 dB) vs. the ignored required 59 X (@ 95 dB) protection.
    TR 54-401 and this veteran’s in-hand documentation could help some so exposed, e.g., “Had some trouble with hearing while working on warm-up crew for F-86 D with very high noise levels.” The physician’s 29 Jan. 54 USAF Cadet Wing Commander washout statement. At Tyndall AFB, Panama City, Florida the hundreds of flight line personnel were unprotected and subjected to the Project 7210 “very high noise levels”. For F-86D personnel it is the then known certain J47-GE-1 jet-engine noise level injury, i.e., the TR 54-401 pages 68-75, “Test Group 10, Date of the Tests: 1952, Test Numbers 62-64”. This is an at 50 feet 158 dB noise level with an 87,381 X sound pressure multiple. Fifteen (15) of the 77 were repeatedly exposed to a “warm-up crew” level of over 699,051 X at 176 dB! As with ALL UNPROTECTED flight line (USAF, Army & USN) and flight deck (USN) personnel, they worked much closer to the jet-engines than the at 50 feet recorded noise levels. Therefore, all were subjected to well over the 6,144 X to 815,583 X sound pressure multiples. An over 50 years of VA lessons learned from an unprotected injury in direct disobedience of the 1948 AFR 160-3 requirement..
    Your consideration is most appreciated. Thank you.

  4. Pingback: Het uranium pandemonium « Aad Verbaast

  5. Pingback: Het uranium pandemonium. « Aad Verbaast

  6. Pingback: GALERIE FOTO: CUM SE PRIVESTE LA O EXPLOZIE NUCLEARA… « CER SI PAMANT ROMANESC

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s